Jessica Sanders, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), presented on the legal and policy framework for VMEs, including the history of UN General Assembly resolutions and FAO deep-sea fisheries guidelines. Tony Thompson, FAO, reviewed VME criteria, and measures adopted by Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs). He noted improvements in: data collection; enforcement; review of VME closures; footprint delineation; VME coverage; and, the contribution of VMEs to SDGs and the Aichi Biodiveristy Targets. Mauricio Gálvez, Institute of Fisheries Development, described a mapping project to locate potential VMEs. He reviewed “move-on” rules for VME encounters, noting uncertainty costs, and suggested workshops on MSP regimes. Michel Kaiser, IUCN Fisheries Expert Group (IUCN-FEG), shared research results related to: species’ depletion values and fishery penetration depth; fish longevity in more stable habitats; and, analytical tools to predict the proportion of long-lived species expected to remain in an area. Joseph Appiott, CBD, highlighted links between RFMOs and the work of the CBD, including similarities between EBSAs and VME criteria.